About Tajikistan

 

  • Capital city: Dushanbe 38°33′N, 68°48′E - is the largest city
  • Official language – Tajik
  • Government – Unitary presidential republic
  • President - Emomalii Rahmon
  • Prime Minster – Oqil Oqilov
  • Establishment of the Samanid Empire 875 AD
  • Declared – September 9. 1991
  • Completed – December 25. 1991
  • Area Total 143,100 sq. km.
  • Water (%) 0,3
  • Population January 2006 - 6,920,300
  • Currency - Somoni
  • Time zone +5
  • Internet - .tj
  • Calling code +992

Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked sovereign country in Central Asia. With an estimated 8 million people in 2013, it is the 98th most populous country and with an area covering 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi), it is the 96th largest country in the world in terms of area. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east.

The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm[8] of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity,Zoroastrianism, and Manichaeism. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, and the Russian Empire. As a result of the break up of the Soviet Union Tajikistan became an independent nation in 1991. Acivil war was fought almost immediately after independence that lasted from 1992 to 1997 however since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow.

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik, a dialect of Modern Persian, although many people also speak Russian. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is dependent on aluminum andcotton production, its economy is the 126th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 136th largest in terms of nominal GDP.

Etimology

Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" (Persian: ـستان‎ -stān) is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic (before the seventh century A.D.) tribe. According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."

Geography

Ninety-three percent of Tajikistan`s territory is mountainous, and the mountain glaciers are the source of its rivers. Tajikistan is an earthquake-prone area. The republic is bounded by China in the east, Afghanistan to the south, and Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan to the west and north. The central Asian republic also includes the Gorno-Badakh Shan Autonomous region. Tajikistan is slightly larger than the state of Illinois.

Mountains of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It is covered by mountains of the Pamir range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 meters (approx. 10,000 ft) above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north which is part of the Fergana Valley, and in the southern Kafirnigan and Vakhsh valleys which form the Amu Darya and have much higher rainfall. Dushanbe is located on the southern slopes above the Kafirnigan valley.

Mountains:

  • Ismoil Somoni Peak ( Communism Peak) 7495 m
  • Ibn Sina Peak 9Lenin Peak) 7134 m
  • Peak Korjenevskaja 7105 m
  • Independence Peak (Revolution) 6974 m
  • Karl Marx Peak 6726 m
  • Mayakovskiy Peak 6096 m
  • The Amu Darya and Pjanj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and Tajikistan`s mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea

About 1 % of the country`s area is covered by lakes:

  • Kuli Kalon (Fan Mountains)
  • Iskanderkul (Gissar Range)
  • Nurek Reservuar (Khatlom Province)
  • Kara-Kul (Tajik: Qarokul; located in eastern Pamir)
  • Sarez (Pamir)
  • Shorkul (Pamir)
  • Yashikul (Pamir)
  • Zorkul (Pamir)